Urinalysis: Reference Ranges

 Urinalysis reference ranges are used as guidelines to assess the various components and properties of urine. These ranges represent the typical or normal values observed in healthy individuals. It's important to note that reference ranges can vary slightly depending on the laboratory and the specific testing methods used. Here are some common components of urinalysis and their reference ranges:

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Color: The normal color of urine ranges from pale yellow to amber. Abnormal colors, such as red, brown, or cloudy urine, may indicate underlying health issues.

Appearance: Normal urine appears clear or slightly hazy. Cloudy or turbid urine may indicate the presence of particles or sediment.

pH Level: The pH of urine is a measure of its acidity or alkalinity. The normal pH range for urine is typically between 4.6 and 8.0, with a slightly acidic to slightly alkaline nature.

Specific Gravity: Specific gravity measures the concentration of solutes in urine and indicates the urine's ability to concentrate or dilute. The normal range is usually between 1.005 and 1.030.

Protein: Normally, urine should contain little to no protein. A protein level of 0-8 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) is considered within the normal range.

Glucose: In a healthy individual, glucose should not be present in urine. The normal reference range for glucose in urine is typically negative.

Ketones: Ketones are substances produced during the breakdown of fats. They are not normally found in urine. Therefore, the reference range for ketones in urine is usually negative.

Red and White Blood Cells: The presence of red blood cells (RBCs) or white blood cells (WBCs) in urine can indicate various conditions. The normal reference range for RBCs is typically 0-3 RBCs per high-power field, and for WBCs, it is typically 0-5 WBCs per high-power field.

Nitrites: Nitrites are not normally present in urine. The reference range for nitrites in urine is typically negative. The presence of nitrites may indicate a urinary tract infection.

It's important to remember that these reference ranges can vary slightly between different laboratories and testing methods. It's always best to consult with a healthcare professional or refer to the specific reference ranges provided by the laboratory conducting the urinalysis for an accurate interpretation of the results.


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