Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones

The endocrine system is the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things.

Below is a list of the main glands, some of the hormones they produce and what effects they have on the body.


  • Major hormones : ADH, Oxytocin and various hormones that stimulate the pituitary gland.
  • Influences : Nervous and hormonal systems

Pituitary gland
  • Major hormones : Luteinising hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Prolactin, growth hormone, Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Oxytocin, Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
  • Influences : Reproduction, Growth, Childbirth, Breastfeeding, Hormone regulation

Pineal gland

  • Major hormones : Melatonin
  • Influences : Sleep cycle

Thyroid gland

  • Major hormones : Tri-iodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), Calcitonin
  • Influence :  Metabolism, bone health

Parathyroid gland

  • Major hormones  : Parathyroid hormone
  • Influences : Calcium and vitamin D regulation

Adrenal glands

  • Major hormones : Adrenaline, Noradrenaline, Cortisol, Aldosterone
  • Influences : Stress response and blood pressure / salt control


  • Major hormones : Insulin, Glucagon, Somatostatin
  • Influences : Blood sugar control

Ovaries (females only)

  • Major hormones : Oestrogen, Progesterone
  • Influences : Female characteristics

Testes (males only)

  • Major hormones : Testosterone
  • Influences : Male characteristics

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