A hernia occurs when an organ or fatty tissue pushes through a weak spot in a surrounding muscle or connective tissue called fascia.

Hernias are most common in the abdomen, but they can also appear in the upper thigh, belly button, and groin areas. Most hernias are not immediately life threatening, but they don’t go away on their own and can require surgery to prevent potentially dangerous complications.

Causes for Hernias

Ultimately, all hernias are caused by a combination of pressure and an opening or weakness of muscle or fascia. The pressure pushes an organ or tissue through the opening or weak spot.

Increase in pressure in the abdomen can cause a hernia, like

  • Lifting heavy objects without stabilizing the abdominal muscles
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Persistent coughing or sneezing

In addition, 
  • Obesity
  • Poor nutrition
  • Smoking
  • Being pregnant, which puts pressure on your abdomen
may cause a hernia.

Common Types of Hernia.

  • Inguinal hernia - Inguinal hernias are the most common type of hernia. These hernias occur when the intestines push through a weak spot or tear in the lower abdominal wall, often in the inguinal canal. These hernias are divided into two different types, direct and indirect. Both occur in the groin area where the skin of the thigh joins the torso (the inguinal crease), but they have slightly different origins. Both of these types of hernias can similarly appear as a bulge in the inguinal area. Distinguishing between the direct and indirect hernia, however, is important as a clinical diagnosis.
  • Femoral hernia - This is less common than an inguinal hernia and tends to affect women, due to the wider female pelvis. It is caused by a protrusion of tissue into the top of the groin or the inside of the thigh.This type of hernia occurs lower down the groin than where an inguinal hernia forms and tends to be smaller as well.

  • Hiatal hernia - A hiatal hernia occurs when part of stomach protrudes up through the diaphragm (witch separates the organs in your abdomen from those in your chest) into your chest.
  • Spigelian hernia: This rare hernia occurs along the edge of the rectus abdominus muscle through the spigelian fascia, which is several inches lateral to the middle of the abdomen.
  • Umbilical hernia - Umbilical hernias can occur in children and babies under 6 months old. This happens when intestines bulge through their abdominal wall near their bellybutton. You may notice a bulge in or near your child’s bellybutton, especially when they’re crying. Thease hernia is the only kind that often goes away on its own, typically by the time the child is 1 year old. If the hernia has not gone away by this point, surgery may be used to correct it.
  • Incisional hernia - Incisional hernias can occur after a abdominal surgery. Intestines may push through the incision scar or the surrounding, weakened tissue.
  • Epigastric hernia - An epigastric hernia is similar to an umbilical hernia in that it mainly affects babies and young children rather than adults. It develops in almost a similar way to an umbilical hernia except that it occurs in the area between the chest and belly button known as the epigastrium.
Symptoms of a hernia

Bulge or lump in the affected area.
Pain or discomfort in the affected area 
A burning, gurgling, or aching sensation at the site of the bulge

But the symptoms depends on the type and the place of the hernia.


  • Through a physical examination. 
  • X-ray or endoscop
  • Perform an ultrasound.
Treatments for a hernia

If the hernia is growing larger or causing pain, best thing is to operate. Commonly it is done by patching the hole with surgical mesh.

Hernias can be repaired with either open or laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic surgery uses a tiny camera and miniaturized surgical equipment to repair the hernia using only a few small incisions. Laparoscopic surgery is less damaging to the surrounding tissue. Laparoscopic surgery has a much shorter recovery time.

Open surgery requires a longer recovery process. In addition, not all hernias are suitable for laparoscopic repair.


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